Time to forget Thoracic outflow syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion, affecting females more than males and with an incidence between 1 and 3% reported in the literature (1). When we talk about Thoracic outlet syndrome, what exactly do we mean by the thoracic outlet? Anatomists regard this as the region of the diaphragm, where the thorax and abdominal cavity communicate (2). Clinicians typically regard this as